Chapter 3 Reflection

  • proofs
  • ethos, logos, pathos
  • arguments
  • makes the writing more effective
  • hypothesis vs thesis(Complex and simple)
  • supporting reasons & personal experience & expert testimony & Statistical data\
  • rebuttals


In chapter 3, we went covered a lot different points when it came to arguments. An argument doesn’t necessarily mean a heated conversation but instead it can be a statement that proves a point. We can build our arguments through claims and proofs. There are 2 different types of proofs which are inartistic and artistic. Inartistic consists of statistics and facts while artistic are made from the writer of the argument. We were also introduced into three different types of rhetorical appeal that help writers and speakers support their argument. The first type is Ethos, which is based on the credibility of the person supporting an argument. The second type is Logos, which is based on a person’s logic and reason. Lastly, the third type is Pathos, which focuses on the emotions of an audience.

During class, we were instructed to find an advertisement or a piece of writing that contained an argument and our job was to find if they used ethos, logos, pathos, or even all three. I chose an advertisement from the company Degree. They had a commercial which featured NBA Star, Stephen Curry, promoting the different types of deodorant Degree had. This was an example of using Ethos, because based off of Curry’s fame and success he earned from the league, more consumers will look forward to buy Degree products. Aside from ethos, logos, and pathos, we discussed the differences between a hypothesis and thesis statement. A hypothesis is a statement that is usually confirmed after an experiment while a thesis explains the conclusion of a topic.

There are two different types of thesis statements and they are called simple or complex. A simple thesis statement states the position of the writer on a topic, but fails to give any supporting reasons while a complex thesis statement gives the supporting reasons. Personally, supporting reasons are the main focus when reading an argument. To make supporting reasons much stronger, writers can use personal experience, statistical data, or expert testimony. Including a few examples from these topics will catch the readers’ attention and persuade their minds very effectively. Another way of strengthening your argument is to offer a rebuttal. A rebuttal is using a counterargument to and using evidence to respond towards the counterargument. This will help the reader know that the writer has understanding of multiple positions on a certain stance.


“We should support legislation to limit the use of cell phones while driving”

The audience already knows that the usage of the phone while driving is very dangerous and can cause death or serious injuries. The audience needs to know that there will be more police tracking down on usage of the phone and driving. Also, they should know some statistics about usage of phone/driving with the number of fatalities. Statistics and numbers will motivate readers to look more into it. Deaths are a very sensitive topic to anyone so if we bring up the numbers of deaths caused by phone usage and driving, people will be very interested. Quotes from close friends of people who have died will also catch the attention of the audience.


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